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免费网站观看+ thêm m?t s? ch?n l?a+ Thêm m?t ng??i ??ng hành: h? tr? b?n v?i nh?ng gi?i pháp t?i ?u, h?p l? & hi?u qu?

WE ARE...

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"Everybody knows what it takes to be great, but only a few people can do it. WE are those few. WE are anthropologists, explorers, collaborators, architects of EXPERIENCE. WE are adventurers. WE have the ability and responsibility to take the world some places new."

M?i chúng ta ??u bi?t r?ng ?i?u gì làm cho m?i vi?c tr? nên t?t ??p nh?ng ch? vài ng??i có th? th?c hi?n ???c ?i?u ?ó. CH?NG TA là m?t trong s? ít ng??i ?y. CH?NG TA - nh?ng nhà nh?n lo?i h?c, nhà thám hi?m, ng??i c?ng tác, nh?ng ki?n trúc s? có KINH NGHI?M v? v?n ?? ?y, là nhà M?O HI?M, CH?NG TA có kh? n?ng và trách nhi?m thay ??i th? gi?i này.

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2012-08-26

WASTE WATER & AIR EMISSION






HSE CULTURE



ERGONOMIC - KHOA H?C LAO ??NG L? G??


Ergonomics comesfrom the Greek words for Work (Ergo) and Laws (Nomics). Intechnical terms, ergonomics can be defined as “The laws or principles governing work design”. The study of thedesign of work in relation to the physiological and psychological capabilitiesof people.

Ergonomics is an applied science that concentrates on the humanfactors involved in the design of a process or product.

Ergonomics is the science of fitting jobs to people. Ergonomicsencompasses the body of knowledge about physical abilities and limitations aswell as other human characteristics that are relevant to job design.

Ergonomic design is the application of this body of knowledge to thedesign of the workplace (work tasks, equipment, environment) for safe andefficient use by workers.
 
Good ergonomic design makes the most efficient useof worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands do not exceed thosecapabilities.
 MSDs are disordersor diseases of the nervous system or soft tissue. (musculoskeletal disorders).
Experts inergonomics, the science of fitting the job to the worker, have found that mostMSDs are caused or related to five workplace risk factors. 

The five riskfactors are 
1. Repetition, 
2. Force, 
3. Awkward postures, 
4. Contact stress,
5 and Vibration.  

Ergonomic experts have found that reducing an employee's exposure to these riskfactors will reduce the potential for MSD-related injuries.  Exposure toMSD risk factors can be reduced by ergonomic engineering controls, administrativecontrols, and even personal protective equipment (PPE).
 (Source info: WHO, Wikipedia)
----------------------------------------------------


T? “Khoa h?c lao ??ng” b?t ngu?n t? ti?ng Hy L?p, là t? ghép gi?a 2 t? Work (Ergo) và Laws (Nomics). Theo t? k? thu?t, Khoa h?c lao ??ng (KHL?) ???c ??nh ngh?a là “Lu?t l? ho?c nguyên t?c qu?n l? c?ng vi?c”. KHL? nghiên c?u vi?c ph?n b? c?ng vi?c liên quan ??n kh? n?ng và gi?i h?n s?c kh?e lao ??ng c?a con ng??i.

KHL? là ngành khoa h?c áp d?ng t?p trung nghiên c?u các y?u t? liên quan ??n quy trình s?n xu?t. KHL? là ngành khoa h?c nghiên c?u m?c ?? phù h?p c?a c?ng vi?c v?i s?c lao ??ng c?a con ng??i. KHL? nghiên c?u kh? n?ng và gi?i h?n s?c kh?e c?ng nh? các ??c tính c? th? con ng??i liên quan ??n ??c thù c?ng vi?c.

KHL? ?ng d?ng ki?n th?c nghiên c?u s?c kh?e c? th? vào ??c tr?ng c?a n?i làm vi?c (c?ng vi?c c? th?, trang thi?t b?, m?i tr??ng làm vi?c), m?c ?ích là vì hi?u qu? c?ng vi?c và vì an toàn s?c kh?e c?a ng??i lao ??ng.

?ng d?ng hi?u qu? KHL? giúp ta t?n d?ng hi?u qu? kh? n?ng lao ??ng c?a ng??i lao ??ng, ??ng th?i ??m b?o ???c yêu c?u c?ng vi?c kh?ng v??t quá gi?i h?n s?c kh?e c?a con ng??i.

MSDs là s? r?i l?an h? th?ng th?n kinh ho?c r?i lo?n các m? m?m(r?i lo?n c? x??ng). Các chuyên gia KHL? phát h??n h?u h?t các nguyên nh?n g?yra b?nh r?i l?an c? x??ng ??u có liên quan ??n 5 y?u t? r?i ro t?i n?i làm vi?cnh? sau: 

N?my?u t? r?i ro:

1. Các ??ng tác l?p ?i l?p l?i,
2. l?c tác ??ng lên thao tác, 
3. t? th?làm vi?c, 
4. áp l?c c?ng vi?c, và
5.  s? di chuy?n trong c?ng vi?c. 

Các chuyên gia chobi?t n?u ta gi?m m?c ti?p c?n v?i nh?ng y?u t? r?i ro này s? làm gi?m nguy c? m?cb?nh liên quan ??n MSD. Nh?ng ti?p c?n v?i nguy c? MSD có th? ???c gi?m b?ngcách th?c hi?n nh?ng bi?n pháp ng?n ng?a b?nh ngh? nghi?p, các th? t?c ki?msoát hành chánh và s? d?ng các d?ng c? an toàn b?o h? lao ??ng

(Ngu?n ki?n th?c: trang web t? ch?c WHO, t? ?i?n m? Wikipedia)



FOOD POISONING - HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT? KI?N TH?C T?NG QU?T V? NG? ??C TH?C PH?M


Food borne illness is an ever-present threat that can beprevented with proper care and handling of food products. It is estimated thatbetween 24 and 81 million cases of food borne diarrhea disease occur each yearin the United States,costing between $5 billion and $17 billion in medical care and lostproductivity.
Many people have had firsthand experience of how unpleasantfood poisoning can be, even for a fit and healthy person. And sometimes foodpoisoning can cause serious illness.

We get food poisoning from eating food that contains harmfulbacteria, viruses or poisonous substances known as toxins.

What are the symptoms?

When someone swallows bacteria that cause food poisoning,there is a delay (incubation period) before symptoms begin. This is becausemost bacteria that cause food poisoning need time to multiply in the intestine.

The length of the incubation period depends on the type ofbacteria and how many are swallowed. It could be hours or days.

The symptoms of food poisoning can vary, depending on whathas caused it.

Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal crampsand diarrhea, and sometimes fever.

Occasionally, foodpoisoning can be very serious and even cause death. So it’s important to preventfood poisoning with good food hygiene.

What should I do?

There are three main things to consider when you have foodpoisoning:
§ dehydration– drink plenty of fluids and perhaps use dehydration powders available frompharmacies
§ medical assistance– if you are concerned about your health or the health of someone else, contactyour local medical facility/ hospital (especially in the case of pregnantwomen, elderly people, children and people who are already ill)
§ reporting– if you think that your illness was caused by food prepared by the factorycanteen or any source outside the home, report the incident to your factorymanagement or local environmental health service.

Why is it important to report food poisoning?

If you think your illness has been caused by food from arestaurant or other food business, the local environmental health departmentneeds to know so it can investigate the business in question. If theenvironmental health officers find a problem with the business's food hygienepractices, and get the business to improve them, this could help prevent otherpeople suffering from food poisoning.

To help avoid food poisoning it's important to make sure thefood you make for yourself and for other people is safe to eat.

The following tips explain the basics of food hygiene.You'll find practical advice on how to prevent food poisoning & keep foodsafe from harmful bacteria – including preparing and cooking food, keeping yourkitchen clean, catering for large numbers at parties and events.


1. The first step inpreventing food poisoning is to assume that all foods may cause food-borneillness.

2. Preparing -It's very important to prepare food safely, to help stop harmful bacteria fromspreading and growing. Wash hands, food preparation surfaces and utensilsthoroughly before and after handling raw foods to prevent recontamination ofcooked foods.
§ Washyour hands
§ Separateraw meat and ready-to-eat food
§ Preparingpoultry yourself

3. Cooking -Cooking food properly will help make sure that any harmful bacteria are killed.Eating food that isn't properly cooked could make you ill

4. Cleaning -Keeping your kitchen clean is essential to keep food safe. Otherwise bacteriacan grow and spread

5. Storing -It’s important to take care how you store food, to make sure it’s safe to eat

6. Keep refrigerated foods below 40 degrees F.

7. Serve hot foods immediately or keep them heated above 140degrees F.

8. Divide large volumes of food into small portions forrapid cooling in the refrigerator. Hot, bulky foods in the refrigerator canraise the temperature of foods already cooled.

9. Remember the danger zone is between 40 degrees F and 140degrees F.

10. Follow approved home-canning procedures.

11. Heat canned foods thoroughly before tasting.

12. When in doubt, throw it out

Infants, older persons, women who are pregnant and anyonewith a compromised immune system are especially susceptible to food-borneillness. These people should never consume raw fish, raw seafood, or raw meattype products.

You are the key topreventing food-borne illness. By observing the simple rules of good handling,food poisoning can be eliminated.

(Source info: WHO website & general searching internet)
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Các b?nh có liên quan ??n th?c ph?m t?ng xu?thi?n và g?y ?nh h??ng có th? ???c ng?n ng?a th?ng qua vi?c x? l? th?c ph?m h?pl?. ? M? m?i n?m ??c tính kho?ng 24 ??n 81 tri?u tr??ng h?p tiêu ch?y do th?c?n, chi phí cho vi?c khám ch?a b?nh và n?ng su?t lao ??ng b? m?t ?i kho?ng t? 5??n 17 t?.
Nhi?u ng??i, c? nh?ng ng??i kh?e m?nhc?ng ??u bi?t ng? ??c th?c ph?m r?t ?áng s?. ??i lúc ng? ??c th?c ph?m có th?g?y ra m?t s?  b?nh r?t nghi?m tr?ng.

Chúng ta b? ng? ??c vì ?n ph?i th?c ?n cóch?a các lo?i vi khu?n g?y h?i, các lo?i virút hay các lo?i ch?t ??c ???c xemlà các ??c t?.

Nh?ng tri?u ch?ng gì?

Khi ?n ph?i th?c ?n có ch?a các lo?i vikhu?n g?y ng? ??c, s? có m?t kho?ng th?i gian l?ng l?i (th?i gian ? b?nh) tr??ckhi các tri?u ch?ng xu?t hi?n. L? do là h?u h?t các vi khu?n này c?n th?i gian  ?? sinh s?i n?y n? trong ru?t non.

Th?i gian ? b?nh tùy thu?c vào t?ng lo?ivi khu?n và s? l??ng th?c ?n. Có th? vài ti?ng ??ng h? hay vài ngày.

Các tri?u ch?ng c?a ng? ??c th?c ph?m r?tphong phú, tùy thu?c vào nguyên nh?n g?y ra nó.

Các tri?u ch?ng th??ng th?y nh? ói m?a, ?aub?ng d? d?i, tiêu ch?y ??i lúc có kèm theo s?t.

??i lúc, ng? ??c th?c ph?m r?t nguy hi?mvà có th? d?n ??n t? vong. Do v?y, ng?n ng?a ng? ??c th?c ph?m th?ng qua v? sinh th?cph?m là ?i?u r?t quan tr?ng.

Chúng ta nên làm gì?

Có ba vi?c chính c?n xem xét khi ng? ??cth?c ph?m x?y ra:
§ Kh?n??c – u?ng nhi?u ch?t l?ngvà có th? dùng b?t kh? n??c có th? mua t?i các hi?u thu?c
§ Kháms?c kh?e – n?u b?n quan t?m ??ns?c kh?e c?a mình và m?i ng??i, h?y liên h? v?i các t? ch?c y t? ho?c b?nh vi?nt?i ??a ph??ng (??c bi?t ??i v?i ph? n? mang thai ng??i già, tr? em và nh?ngng??i ?ang b?nh)
§ Báocáo – n?u  b?n ngh? b?n nhi?m b?nh vì ?? dùng th?c ph?mdo nhà máy ch? bi?n hay ? các quán v?a hè, h?y th?ng báo cho Ban qu?n l? Nhàmáy hay trung t?m y t? và m?i tr??ng t?i ??a ph??ng c?a mình.

T?i sao báo cáo v? ng? ??c th?cph?m l?i quan tr?ng?

N?u b?n ngh? r?ng mình m?c b?nh do ?nph?i th?c ?n c?a nhà hàng hay các hàng quán khác thì nên th?ng báo cho S? y t?m?i tr??ng t?i ??a ph??ng ?? h? có th? giúp ?? ?i?u tra. N?u các cán b? t? S?phát hi?n an toàn th?c ph?m c?a các t? ch?c kinh doanh này có v?n ??, h? có th?giúp c?i thi?n và ng?n ng?a ???c ng? ??c th?c ph?m.
?? tránh ng? ??c th?c ph?m, vi?c b?o ??mth?c ?n b?n t? ch? bi?n cho mình và cho ng??i khác là r?t quan tr?ng.

Sau ??y là m?t s? ?i?u c? b?n c?n nh? v?vê sinh th?c ph?m. Làm th? nào ?? ?? phòng ng? ??c th?c ph?m và b?o ??m th?cph?m kh?ng b? vi khu?n g?y – bao g?m các kh?u chu?n b?, n?u n??ng, gi? v? sinhkhu nhà b?p, vi?c cung c?p th?c ph?m m?t s? l??ng l?n cho ti?c tùng

1. ?? ng?n ng?a ng? ??c th?c ph?m vi?c??u tiên ph?i hi?u th?c ph?m có th? g?y ra các lo?i b?nh liên quan.

2. Kh?u chu?n b? - Quan tr?ng là th?c ph?m ???c chu?n b? m?t cách an toàn ??kh?ng ch? kh?ng cho vi khu?n g?y h?i phát tri?n và l?y lan. R?a tay, v? sinh k?m?t b?p và d?ng c? n?u b?p tr??c và sau khi x? l? th?c ph?m t??i s?ng ?? ng?nng?a các lo?i th?c ph?m ?? qua ch? bi?n ti?p t?c g?y nhi?m.
§ R?a s?ch tay
§ Tách bi?t th?t s?ng v?i th?c ph?m ?? ???c ch? bi?n
§ Tránh ti?p xúc tr?c ti?p v?i gia c?m

3. Kh?u ch? bi?n – Ch? bi?n h?p v? sinh giúp lo?i tr? vi khu?n g?y h?i. S? d?ng th?c ph?m ch? bi?n kh?ng h?p v? sinhb?n có nguy c? b? nhi?m b?nh.
4. V? sinh – V? sinh nhà b?p s?ch s? là y?u t? c?n thi?t cho an toànth?c ph?m. N?u kh?ng vi khu?n s? phát tri?n và l?y nhi?m

5. L?u tr? - ?? ??m b?o th?c ph?m dùng ???c an toàn, vi?c l?u tr? th?cph?m nh? th? nào c?ng r?t quan
6. Gi? th?c ph?m ??ng l?nh ? nhi?t ??d??i 40 ?? F

7. Ph?c v? th?c ph?m ngay khi còn nóngho?c h?m nóng th?c ph?m trên 140 ?? F.

8. Chia s? l??ng l?n th?c ph?m ra t?ngph?n nh? ?? ??ng l?nh ???c nhanh. Th?c ph?m nóng hay v?i s? l??ng l?n có th?làm t?ng nhi?t ?? c?a các lo?i th?c ph?m ?? ???c ??ng l?nh.

9. Ghi nh? khu v?c nguy hi?m dao ??ngtrong kho?ng 40 ?? F ??n 140 ?? F.

10. Tu?n th? quy trình ?óng gói t?i nhà

11. H?m th?c ph?m ?óng h?p ?úng quy ??nhtr??c khi dùng.
12. V?t ngay th?c ph?m n?u th?y nghi ng?.

Tr? em, ng??i già, ph? n? có thai và b?tc? ai có h? th?ng mi?n d?ch kh?ng t?t ??u có nguy c? b? m?c các b?nh liên quan??n th?c ph?m. Nh?ng ng??i này kh?ng bao gi? ???c dùng cá t??i, h?i s?n t??i vàcác s?n ph?m th?t t??i s?ng.

Chínhb?n là ng??i có th? ng?n ng?a các b?nh có liên quan ??n th?c ph?m. Ng? ??c th?cph?m có th? ???c lo?i tr? d?a trên nh?ng quy t?c c? b?n v? x? l? th?c ph?m h?pl?. 


(Ngu?n th?ng tin t? trang web c?a t? ch?c WHO & l??m l?t t? internet)